A Study of Prevalence and Root Causes of Surgical Site Infections in an Acute Care Facility in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates


Authors : Aulin Vitus; Dr Ranga Reddy Burri

Volume/Issue : Volume 8 - 2023, Issue 10 - October

Google Scholar : https://tinyurl.com/43ejja7n

Scribd : https://tinyurl.com/46sjfrj7

DOI : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.10053551

Abstract : Introduction: Hospital-acquired infections are a well-known cause of morbidity and can have negative consequences for patients, particularly surgical site infections (SSIs), which affect up to 5% of surgery patients. Evidence suggests that around 60% of SSIs could be prevented through the use of evidence-based measures.Objective: This study aims to identify the risk factors that contribute to SSIs among patients undergoing major surgery.Methodology: This study was conducted at a teaching hospital in the Unites United Arab Emirates (UAE). To investigate the risk factors for surgical site infections (SSIs) in patients undergoing major surgery, Qualified infection control professionals (ICPs) conducted a hospital-based retrospective descriptive approach. A total of 200 patients who underwent surgery during the first half of 2022 were included in the study. Additionally, a survey was conducted to evaluate the infection control practices and knowledge related to the surgical pathway of patients. To analyze the data collected, the procedure and SSI data were used to generate descriptive reports. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the factors associated with SSIs. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals were used to assess the associations between the dependent variable and other variables.Results: The study revealed that 11 out of 200 patients (5.5%) developed SSIs. The factors found to be associated with SSIs were the patient's ASA score (OR = 4.74; 95% CI = (0.045-490)), length of preoperative stay (OR = 6.09; 95% CI = (0.308-120)), premorbid illness (OR = 4.8; 95% CI = (0.036-640)), and premorbid illness treatment status (OR = 2.04; 95% CI = (0.096-43.286)), mainly focusing on the type of wound, preoperative hospital stay, and comorbid illness. The staff questionnaire proved useful in identifying the risk factors associated with SSIs, while also highlighting the need for more training and education on this important health issue. The survey results showed that responders had a relatively high level of knowledge about the safe surgical pathway, with an overall mean score of 3.43 out of 5 based on the 20 questions provided. Conclusion:To conclude, our study found that 5.5% of the 200 operated patients developed a surgical site infection, with factors such as the type of wound, preoperative hospital stays, and co-morbid illness identified as significant risk factors. Our study also highlighted a lack of knowledge about surgical site infections among some staff members, indicating a need for training in this area. The results underscore the importance of continued research on the prevalence and risk factors of SSIs to improve patient outcomes and reduce healthcare costs. Future research could focus on the effectiveness of prevention interventions, patient factors, microbiological causes, healthcare disparities, and cost-effectiveness of interventions. By identifying effective prevention strategies and improving our understanding of the underlying causes of SSIs, we can work towards reducing the incidence of this significant healthcare complication.

Keywords : Surgical Site Infection; Risk Factor; Hypertension; Diabetes Mellitus; SSI; Risk Factors.

Introduction: Hospital-acquired infections are a well-known cause of morbidity and can have negative consequences for patients, particularly surgical site infections (SSIs), which affect up to 5% of surgery patients. Evidence suggests that around 60% of SSIs could be prevented through the use of evidence-based measures.Objective: This study aims to identify the risk factors that contribute to SSIs among patients undergoing major surgery.Methodology: This study was conducted at a teaching hospital in the Unites United Arab Emirates (UAE). To investigate the risk factors for surgical site infections (SSIs) in patients undergoing major surgery, Qualified infection control professionals (ICPs) conducted a hospital-based retrospective descriptive approach. A total of 200 patients who underwent surgery during the first half of 2022 were included in the study. Additionally, a survey was conducted to evaluate the infection control practices and knowledge related to the surgical pathway of patients. To analyze the data collected, the procedure and SSI data were used to generate descriptive reports. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the factors associated with SSIs. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals were used to assess the associations between the dependent variable and other variables.Results: The study revealed that 11 out of 200 patients (5.5%) developed SSIs. The factors found to be associated with SSIs were the patient's ASA score (OR = 4.74; 95% CI = (0.045-490)), length of preoperative stay (OR = 6.09; 95% CI = (0.308-120)), premorbid illness (OR = 4.8; 95% CI = (0.036-640)), and premorbid illness treatment status (OR = 2.04; 95% CI = (0.096-43.286)), mainly focusing on the type of wound, preoperative hospital stay, and comorbid illness. The staff questionnaire proved useful in identifying the risk factors associated with SSIs, while also highlighting the need for more training and education on this important health issue. The survey results showed that responders had a relatively high level of knowledge about the safe surgical pathway, with an overall mean score of 3.43 out of 5 based on the 20 questions provided. Conclusion:To conclude, our study found that 5.5% of the 200 operated patients developed a surgical site infection, with factors such as the type of wound, preoperative hospital stays, and co-morbid illness identified as significant risk factors. Our study also highlighted a lack of knowledge about surgical site infections among some staff members, indicating a need for training in this area. The results underscore the importance of continued research on the prevalence and risk factors of SSIs to improve patient outcomes and reduce healthcare costs. Future research could focus on the effectiveness of prevention interventions, patient factors, microbiological causes, healthcare disparities, and cost-effectiveness of interventions. By identifying effective prevention strategies and improving our understanding of the underlying causes of SSIs, we can work towards reducing the incidence of this significant healthcare complication.

Keywords : Surgical Site Infection; Risk Factor; Hypertension; Diabetes Mellitus; SSI; Risk Factors.

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