The destiny of our beloved land lies not with us but in our children.Today’s children are tomorrow’s citizen who should be healthy.The physical and mental well being of an individual depends on the correct management of events in the perinatal period.The mortality rate: Neonatal (per 1000 live birth) in India was last reported at 32 in 2010, according to World Bank report published in 2012. The current infant mortality rate in Karnataka state is 65 per 1000 live births. The main reasons for the high rates of neonatal deaths are prematured birth, hygiene and maternal health, the report said.As the 20th century progressed thered is an increasing awareness that preterm infants required special care, as evidenced by the development of incubators and the intensive care nurseries. One in ten babies born in India needs to spend atleast a few days in a neonatal unit to recover from infection and hence require intravenous antibiotics, need extra monitoring or breathing support .Because premature infants often cannot keep themselves warm without help. As a large number of monitoring device for diagnostic and therapeutic application for high risk infants have been developed. These have considerably improved infant survival. The incubator is designed to provide a closely controlled environment for the nursery of sick and preterm infants. In early years doctors took an increasing role in child birth from the eighteenth century onwards. However the care of newborn babies, sick or well, remained largely in the hands of mothers and midwives.Some baby incubators, were devised in the late nineteenth century. The magnitude of low birth weight infants in developing world is enormous.Out of a total of 22 million such infants in the world 21 million belongs to the developing countries.India’s share is quite substantial 7 to 10 million low birth weights constitute 30% live births in India. The most crucial need of low birth weight infants is application of warmth and prevention of heat loss in the distressed infant is absolutely essential for survival, and maintaining a neutral thermal environment is a challenging aspects of NICU. The rmoregulation can be maintained in the incubator in which the infants use fewer calories for heat regulation and thus has low metabolic rate O2consumption.Administrating O2 to neonate in the incubator to reduce the risk of injury from hypoxia and retinopathy of prematurity. It was shown that the high concentrations reached inside incubators caused some babies to go blind. Monitoring conditions in the incubator, and the baby itself, was to become a major area of research.