DIF detection and correction are essential for
fair and equitable assessment practices, especially when
results are used for high-stakes decisions like college
admissions. By identifying and addressing DIF,
assessment developers can reduce the risk of
discrimination or bias against certain groups. Using
papers from 2013 to 2023, a systematic review of DIF in
African educational assessments was conducted. To find
and screen eligible papers, PRISMA 2021 guided the
search. Qualitative synthesis was used to create a
narrative summary of findings after data extraction. 15
papers met the criteria. Between 2013 and 2023, these
English-language papers addressed educational
assessment in Africa. WASSCE, BECE, SSCE, and BJCE
exams were the focus of most studies. The most common
DIF method was IRT. The groups favored in African
educational assessments using Differential Item
Functioning (DIF) varied by context, assessment, and
subject. DIF has been found in African studies.
Educational experts must critically assess African
assessments and take steps to address these issues.
Keywords : Differential item functioning, Item response theory, educational assessment.