Acceptance of new technology by the paper industry often takes time, and is so gradual that it becomes difficult to assign precise introductory times to novel products. The first public presentation of the Allied Colloids new Hydrocol bentonite process is recalled to be at a Canadian Pulp and Paper Association meeting in the late 70’s. The Eka Compozil colloidal silica process is probably of about the same era. Initially, the nanoflocculation process was poorly understood, the subject of much trial and error. Nanoflocculation is far superior to macro flocculation, even though usually executed with a chemistry efficiency of only about 10%. Homogeneity at 2 critical junctures is typically not achieved, and the repulsive surface force remains, to forever degrade strength properties.