Cane and rattans (Calamus spp.) are spiny climbing palms belonging to the subfamily Calamoideae of the family Arecaceae. They are principal non-timber forest products in international trade and have social and economic importance because of their unique characteristics such as strength, durability, looks and bending ability. Canes play a significant role in the livelihood of rural and tribal people in terms of income generation and employment. In Eastern Ghats of India, the genus Calamus is represented by six species; C. guruba, C. viminalis and C.latifolius being the widespread species. In the present paper, the genetic relationship and phylogeny of 6 species (30 accessions) of Calamus namely, C. guruba, C. viminalis, C. latispinus, C. latifolius, C. caesius and C. rotang have been assessed using RAPD and ISSR markers. RAPD analysis was performed using 20 decamer oligonucleotide primers. Out of a total of 272 bands amplified 5 were found to be monomorphic, while 267 bands were polymorphic including one unique band. In ISSR analysis, 20 primers amplified a total of 224 bands, of which, 210 were polymorphic in nature. By combining the data of both markers, a total of 496 bands were produced including 477 polymorphic loci. The dendrogram obtained from the UPGMA analysis revealed the extent of intra-species diversity and phylogeny among species. C. viminalis was found to be genetically more diverse; and C. viminalis and C. rotang were found to be phylogenetically closer to each other.
Keywords : Genetic variation, Phylogenetic relationship, RAPD, ISSR, Calamus, Dendrogram.