Assessment of Heavy Metal Composition and Cytogenotoxic Risk Potential of Dumpsite Soil and Water Collected from Kogi State University Students Halls of Residence

Authors : Onoja, A.O.; Egbeja, T. I.; Kadiri, J. U.; Edogbanya, P. R. O.; Oguche, J. U.; Alaji, P. O.; Onifade, D. D.; Osagiede, D. O.; Ibrahim, H. G.

Volume/Issue : Volume 4 - 2019, Issue 11 - November

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Waste disposal is a vital environmental problem in both developed and developing countries. Nigeria generates an estimate of 29.78 x 109 kg waste annually which decomposes to produce toxicants with high concentrations which pose serious ecological and health risks to organisms. This research was carried out to evaluate the heavy metal composition as well as cytogenotoxic risk potential of soil and water samples collected from the halls of residence of Kogi State University, Nigeria. The concentration of heavy metals (Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn), Nikel (Ni), Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), and Chromium (Cr)) in soil samples were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and pollution index (PI) was assess by considering the combined contributions of all studied metals while cytogenotoxic potential of soil and water samples were assessed by using the Allium cepa test. The average concentration of metals in the dumpsite soils followed the trend Fe>Zn>Cu>Ni>Cr>Cd>Pb>As. Pollution index (PI) result revealed all dumpsite soil samples were within the range of moderate to strong pollution indicating potential risk to human health. The samples induced significant inhibition of Allium cepa root growth, decreased Mitotic index (MI) down the groups and induction of cell abnormalities compared to the control. The observed cytogenotoxic effects were assumed to be instigated by the heavy metals present in the samples. These results suggest that the investigated samples may be contaminated and may be of health risk to human population in case of exposure through dermal contact and direct ingestion. A serious and urgent introspection of these sites are therefore required by the stakeholders to mitigate this threat.

Keywords : Waste disposal, Soil, Heavy Metal, Pollution, Health Risk.


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