Air pollution can be caused by human activities
and among such activities is the automotive emissions.
Vehicles are able to obtain their energy from the
combustion of fossil fuels. During the process of
combustion, vehicles are able to emit into the environment
exhaust gases, thereby resulting to serious health and
environmental concerns. But this study is restricted to only
one aspect of the effects which is environmental effects.
The emissions consist of Ozone (O3), Oxides of sulphur
(SOx), Oxides of nitrogen (NOx), Carbon dioxide (CO2),
Carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons and particulate
matter. Some of these gases are also known as Green
House Gases (GHGs). Air pollution have caused various
environmental hazards such as global warming, acid rain,
depletion of the ozone layer, and are leading causes of
climate change. Everyone is aware of the serious climatic
problems being faced all over the world such as excessive
flooding, droughts etc. Nigeria is one of the countries
facing these environmental disasters. Other environmental
hazards include soil pollution, leading to poor agricultural
yields, and water pollution that causes aquatic death.
There are three main automotive sources which emissions
emanate. They are the exhaust, the fuel system
(evaporative) and crankcase ventilation gases. An
automobile exhaust produces harmful gases like oxides of
nitrogen, carbon monoxide, etc that adversely affects the
environment besides causing devastating effects on human
body. This paper reviews the present and modern
knowledge of automotive emissions, the sources, the
environmental effects, control measures, and fuel
economy. Fuel economy and low emissions together makes
the engineering effort more difficult. Emissions and fuel
economy are inter-related because both are influenced by
the engine combustion system design.
Keywords : Automotive Emissions, Catalytic Converter, Environmental Effects, Exhaust Gases, Fuel Economy, Pollution.