Automotive Emissions: Sources, Environmental Effects, and Control Measures


Authors : Stephen Bamidele OBEBE; Abdullahi KOLO; Pius Peter YUSUF

Volume/Issue : Volume 6 - 2021, Issue 4 - April

Google Scholar : http://bitly.ws/9nMw

Scribd : https://bit.ly/3aC8WXw

Air pollution can be caused by human activities and among such activities is the automotive emissions. Vehicles are able to obtain their energy from the combustion of fossil fuels. During the process of combustion, vehicles are able to emit into the environment exhaust gases, thereby resulting to serious health and environmental concerns. But this study is restricted to only one aspect of the effects which is environmental effects. The emissions consist of Ozone (O3), Oxides of sulphur (SOx), Oxides of nitrogen (NOx), Carbon dioxide (CO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons and particulate matter. Some of these gases are also known as Green House Gases (GHGs). Air pollution have caused various environmental hazards such as global warming, acid rain, depletion of the ozone layer, and are leading causes of climate change. Everyone is aware of the serious climatic problems being faced all over the world such as excessive flooding, droughts etc. Nigeria is one of the countries facing these environmental disasters. Other environmental hazards include soil pollution, leading to poor agricultural yields, and water pollution that causes aquatic death. There are three main automotive sources which emissions emanate. They are the exhaust, the fuel system (evaporative) and crankcase ventilation gases. An automobile exhaust produces harmful gases like oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, etc that adversely affects the environment besides causing devastating effects on human body. This paper reviews the present and modern knowledge of automotive emissions, the sources, the environmental effects, control measures, and fuel economy. Fuel economy and low emissions together makes the engineering effort more difficult. Emissions and fuel economy are inter-related because both are influenced by the engine combustion system design.

Keywords : Automotive Emissions, Catalytic Converter, Environmental Effects, Exhaust Gases, Fuel Economy, Pollution.

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