Bacteriological Spectrum and Antibiogram of Isolates Obtained from Smoked Fish Sold in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria


Authors : Otu, Joseph Ubi; Oka, I. A.

Volume/Issue : Volume 8 - 2023, Issue 3 - March

Google Scholar : https://bit.ly/3TmGbDi

Scribd : https://bit.ly/3TZGuEx

DOI : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7793012

Abstract : Fish and fish products are common vehicles in the transmission of opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms if not properly processed and handled. The presence of potentially harmful and multidrugresistant bacteria in sold smoked fish presents a public health threat. This study assessed the bacteriological spectrum and antibiogram of isolates obtained from four species of smoked fish sold in Wuse, Bwari, Dutse and Karmo markets, Abuja, Nigeria. The bacterial species present in eighty (80) fish samples were isolated and identified using standard bacteriological methods while the Kirby Bauer disc-diffusion method was adopted in the determination of the antibiogram pattern of the isolates. Results revealed the presence of eleven bacterial genera with pathogenic potentials including Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Salmonella species, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella species, Proteus mirabilis and Corynebacterium species. The overall prevalence rates from various markets show that P. aeruginosa was the most abundant (54.38%) followed by S. aureus (40.99%), E. coli (38.00%), S. pyogenes (24.00%), while E. aerogenes (21.00%) was the least isolated bacterium. Susceptibility testing shows that all the identified isolates were susceptible to cefixime and showed variable resistance rates to other antibiotics such as sulfamethoxazole+trimethoprim (81%), penicillin (72%), tetracycline (54%), gentamycin (81%), erythromycin (18%), ampicillin (81%), kanamycin (72%), neomycin (72%), cloxacillin (63%), ofloxacin (81%) and ciprofloxacin (18%). All the isolates were 100% resistant to at least three antibiotics used except B. subtilis which was 100% resistant to only two antibiotics. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index of all isolates indicates values higher than 0.2 except B. subtilis, which has a MAR index of 0.16. The isolated bacteria were multidrug-resistant (resistant to 3 or more antibiotics) except B. subtilis. MAR indexes above 0.2 showed that the bacterial isolates are from a high-risk source where antibiotics were frequently used. These significant findings call for effective risk assessment protocols and management measures that protect human health.

Keywords : Bacteriological, Spectrum, Antibiotics, Smoked Fish, Resistance.

Fish and fish products are common vehicles in the transmission of opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms if not properly processed and handled. The presence of potentially harmful and multidrugresistant bacteria in sold smoked fish presents a public health threat. This study assessed the bacteriological spectrum and antibiogram of isolates obtained from four species of smoked fish sold in Wuse, Bwari, Dutse and Karmo markets, Abuja, Nigeria. The bacterial species present in eighty (80) fish samples were isolated and identified using standard bacteriological methods while the Kirby Bauer disc-diffusion method was adopted in the determination of the antibiogram pattern of the isolates. Results revealed the presence of eleven bacterial genera with pathogenic potentials including Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Salmonella species, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella species, Proteus mirabilis and Corynebacterium species. The overall prevalence rates from various markets show that P. aeruginosa was the most abundant (54.38%) followed by S. aureus (40.99%), E. coli (38.00%), S. pyogenes (24.00%), while E. aerogenes (21.00%) was the least isolated bacterium. Susceptibility testing shows that all the identified isolates were susceptible to cefixime and showed variable resistance rates to other antibiotics such as sulfamethoxazole+trimethoprim (81%), penicillin (72%), tetracycline (54%), gentamycin (81%), erythromycin (18%), ampicillin (81%), kanamycin (72%), neomycin (72%), cloxacillin (63%), ofloxacin (81%) and ciprofloxacin (18%). All the isolates were 100% resistant to at least three antibiotics used except B. subtilis which was 100% resistant to only two antibiotics. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index of all isolates indicates values higher than 0.2 except B. subtilis, which has a MAR index of 0.16. The isolated bacteria were multidrug-resistant (resistant to 3 or more antibiotics) except B. subtilis. MAR indexes above 0.2 showed that the bacterial isolates are from a high-risk source where antibiotics were frequently used. These significant findings call for effective risk assessment protocols and management measures that protect human health.

Keywords : Bacteriological, Spectrum, Antibiotics, Smoked Fish, Resistance.

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