Biosensors: Techniques and Applications- A Review


Authors : Ibrahim Haruna Omeiza; Orji Sylvester Oko; Egga Anita; Dauda Adekunle K; Adebayo Anne-Marie Tope; Adedoyin Temitope O

Volume/Issue : Volume 6 - 2021, Issue 4 - April

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Processes of biological and biochemical mechanisms are significant players in a host of scientific fields, and it is important to promptly monitor the parameters involved in these processes. The conversion of biological data into an electrical signal has proven difficult in the times past, necessitating the need for technological devices for the analysis of these data and signals with real-time ease and precision. The analytical device that aids the conversion of a response from biological and/or biochemical interactions into an electrical signal is referred to as a biosensor; described often as a system made up of three-element including a bio-receptor, a transducing element and a signalprocessing unit. Biosensors work through the incorporation of a biological or bio-recognition element to determine a specific analyte embeded with a transducer that is able to convert the biological signal into an electrical signal, for onward interpretation by the end-user. They are classified either by the type of biological signalling mechanism, or the type of signal transduction mechanism employed. Biosensors have the ability to measure molecules that are non-polar and do not respond to most measurement devices. They are easy and efficient to use, ultra-sensitive, with high specificity, and can be controlled rapidly and continuously. However, biosensors are impeded by heat sterilization, causing the denaturation of the biological material, and they can also be extremely expensive. In a variety of scientific areas of research and development such as monitoring of environmental impacts and pollution, medical diagnosis and clinical medicine, industrial processes, agriculture and food safety, defence and security, biosensors have found huge application

Keywords : Biosensor, Bio-Receptor, Analyte, Non-Polar, Transducer

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