Characterization of Toxigenic Clostridium Difficile from Soil in Yola, Nigeria

Authors : N. A. Kachalla; J. H. Doughari; Jude F. Chanji

Volume/Issue : Volume 6 - 2021, Issue 1 - January

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Clostridium difficile toxins plays a major role in diarrhea and colitis associated with the organism. The bacterium is mostly known for its production of two major toxins: a potent enterotoxin (toxin A) and a cytotoxin (toxin B). Characterization of toxigenic C. difficile was carried out by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Two sets of primer pairs sequences which are specific for toxin A (tcdA) and toxin B (tcdB) genes were designed and used to amplify a 1988-bp and 1936- bp DNA fragments respectively. The PCR products (amplicons) were visualized on a 2% agarose gel electrophoresis stained with ethidium bromide. A total of forty (40) soil samples were collected from refuse dump sites located in schools, markets, residential areas and hospitals within Yola North local government, Adamawa state. Out of the 40 samples 25% (10) were harboring C. difficile. Molecular characterization of isolates showed that 40% (4) were toxin A-B + strains, 40% (4) were toxin A +B + while the remaining 20% (2) were non toxigenic strains. Distribution of toxigenic strains of C. difficile isolates from all different sample sites studied showed that the hospital sites contained the highest number (60%) of isolates with toxin A +B + strains while residential ward sites harbors only toxin A -B + strains. It is apparent that toxigenic Clostridium difficile is present in Yola North and its prevalence is environmentally influenced. The study also shows the usefulness of PCR methodology in characterizing C. difficile

Keywords : The results of this studies showed up to 80% of C. difficile isolated from environment are toxigenic.


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