Chemopreventive Potential Of Aqueous Extracts Of Phyllanthus amarus and Euphorbia hirta On Benzo (a) Pyrene Induced Lung Cancer In Albino Mice

Authors : Onoja, A. O; Edogbanya, P. R. O; Egbeja, T. I; Olasunkanmi M. O; Shuaib J

Volume/Issue : Volume 6 - 2021, Issue 4 - April

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Lung cancer, amongst other forms of cancer is heterogeneous diseases with diverse morphological appearances as well as chemotherapeutic responses due to associated significant limitations in safety and efficacy. The major risk factor for lung cancer is tobacco which accounts for 25–30% incidence and 71% of global lung cancer-related deaths. Tobacco contains Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) carcinogens such as benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) which can be activated by a P450 enzymes and covalently bind to DNA at specific sites to form bulky adducts preceding mutation, carcinogenesis, apoptosis or nucleotide excision repair system error. Several plant materials have been considered as effective in cancer chemoprevention with negligible or no side effects. This current study was aimed at determining the Chemopreventive potentials of aqueous extracts of the whole plant of Phyllanthus amarus and Euphorbia hirta on B(a)P-induced lung cell proliferation in albino mice based on selected indices (phytochemical screening, heamatology and histopathology). P. amarus and E. hirta, Forty (40) Pathogen free Swiss albino mice weighing 16g-23g and B(a)P were used for the study. Decoction extraction method was employed in the preparation of aqueous extract of P. amarus and E. hirta whole plants. Quantitative phytochemical screening of aqueous whole plant extract was employed using standard procedure. The mice were blindly divided into eight (8) groups consisting of five mice (n=5) each per group. The first two groups are controlled groups (positive PC and negative NC) the PC received 20mg/kg B(a)P once weekly while other groups received 20mg/kg B(a)P once weekly and 50mg/kg, 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg extracts respectively once daily through oral gavaging. Haemoanalyzer was used to analyze blood sample collected by cardiac puncture into a pre-labeled EDTA sample bottles for WBC, LYM, NEUT and BAS while haematoxylin and eosin method were used for histological assay. The quantitative phytochemical analysis reveals the presence of some secondary metabolites, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, cardiac glycosides and total phenols. Total phenol was found to be present in the highest concentration (1044.17 ± 0.78, 2015.25 ± 0.01, 1859.12 ± 0.01; P. amarus > E. hirta > P.amarus and E. hirta) while Cardiac glycoside have the lowest concentration (0.19 ± 0.00, 0.17 ± 0.00, 0.31 ± 0.01; P.amarus and E. hirta > P.amarus > E. hirta). The haematological parameter reveals a slight increase in WBC and LYM in the treated groups which indicates the strengthening of the defense mechanism as well as immune response of the organism towards B(a)P induced cell proliferation. The histological sections of lung tissue revealed the presence of vessels with mild and focal lesions in the treated animal groups suggesting the extracts curative and suppressive effects to the proliferating cell-tissue and damages induced by B(a)P. This study has shown that the extracts of P. amarus and E. hirta could be used as a prophylactic against B(a)Pinduced cell proliferation in the lung tissues of mice. It also identifies new areas of research for development of better therapeutic and chemopreventive agents against carcinogenesis and other infectious diseases. Lastly, this study serves as a resource base for more research on molecular indices, biochemical screening and isolation of active compounds to determine the therapeutic and chemoprevention efficiency of the plants in lung cancer treatment in human

Keywords : Lung cancer, B(a)P, Phyllanthus amarus, Euphorbia hirta, chemoprevention, histopathology.


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