The relation between anterior corneal
astigmatism and total refractive astigmatism is poorly
defined in India. The prevalence of astigmatism in
especially young patients and those un-co-operative
adult patients is a topic of interest and big challenge for
an optometrist to correct it properly from avoiding
refractive amblyopia in young patients as well as to help
them for better vision for comfortable lifestyle.
Astigmatism one of the defects of the optical system,
has a great effect on the development of visual acuity.
Astigmatism is a common optical defect prevails in
human eyes. Refractive astigmatism and anterior
corneal astigmatism is a different type of astigmatism.
Total refractive astigmatism was received by subjective
manifest refraction. Anterior corneal astigmatism power
different b/w the steep and flat meridians on the
anterior corneal surface. Refractive astigmastism is
both myopia and hyperopia. Astigmatism are evenly
distributed with the axes of higher level of astigmastism
close to the horizontal and vertical axes rather than
oblique,therefore possibly reducing the risk of
Total refractive astigmatism,anterior corneal astigmatism internal astigmatism,manual keratometry Retinoscope,Anterior corneal toricity