Correlation between COVID-19 Patients’ Characteristics and Mortality with the Disease in the Gambia


Volume/Issue : Volume 6 - 2021, Issue 7 - July

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A new coronavirus strain known as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the global pandemic that began in 2019 and continues to plague the planet. The disease's epidemiological features in Africa are different from those in other continents. The aim of this study is to establish the relationship that exists between COVID-19 patients' demographics, symptoms, comorbidities and the risk of COVID-19-related mortality in the Gambia between April 4, 2020 and March 31, 2021. Design. The researchers studied 3547 confirmed positive COVID-19 anonymized cases derived from the DHIS2 database in a retrospective cohort analysis. The factors analyzed include the demographics of the cases, their signs and symptoms, and their comorbidities. The main outcome of interest was death with COVID-19. Results. For the time period under consideration, 3547 anonymized positive COVID-19 events were analyzed. The fatality rate was 0.56%, with a median age of 60.5 (50–71) for those who died with COVID-19 and the pvalue < 0.001. Males are more likely to develop the disease and die from it (63.1% and 85%, respectively). Except for age and sex (both p < 0.05), all factors studied were considered to be statistically insignificantly correlated with the outcome. Cough (11.1%), fever (9.4%), and shortness of breath (4.3%) were the most common signs and symptoms identified by the cases. 4.62 % and 18.1 % of all confirmed positive COVID-19 cases, respectively, had one of the comorbidities and reported one of the COVID-19 signs and symptoms in TABLE 1. There was no statistically significant association between the signs and symptoms or the comorbidities and the outcome. CVD (2.7%), diabetes (1.5%), and ARDS (0.8%) and CLD (0.4%) were the most often identified comorbidities among the cases. Symptoms and comorbidities were reported more often by survivors than those who died with COVID-19. Age, shortness of breath, and diabetes all increase the risk of death with COVID-19, as per the multivariate logistic regression. In this analysis, however, only age was a significant predictor of mortality with COVID-19. Interpretation. The findings of our analysis are consistent with those of the Lusaka cohort, which reported that advanced age increased mortality with COVID-19, and that the most common comorbidities were CVD (hypertension) and diabetes, with a higher proportion of male COVID-19 cases. To better understand the characteristics of COVID-19 hospitalized cases in relation to death with COVID-19, length of hospitalization, and treatment, further exploratory data analysis is needed

Keywords : COVID-19; Comorbidities; The Gambia; Ministry of Health; Correlation; Prevalence; Mortality.


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