Etiopathological Study of Cervical Lymphadenopathy in 100 Rural Patients Attending Tertiary Care Hospital

Authors : Dr.Shaik Nazma; Dr.P.Hari Krishna

Volume/Issue : Volume 8 - 2023, Issue 2 - February

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The term lymphadenopathy refers to nodes that are abnormal in size, consistency or number. Cervical lymphadenothy is one of the common and important presentations of the underlying pathology of the head and neck region which has large number of differential diagnosis like neoplasms, infections (specific and nonspecific) and in immune deficiency disorders and also the rare disorders like Inflammatory pseudotumour (Plasma cell granuloma)[1]. According to the onset ,it can be an acute (<2 wks), subacute(2-6wks) or chronic(>6wks)[3]  Methods: For all the patients routine haematological investigations , USG,neck, FNAC of enlarged cervical lymph nodes, serological tests and other relevant tests was performed. Mode of onset and duration of enlarged cervical lymph nodes, associated symptoms with it like pain, fever, cough, throat pain, difficulty in swallowing, voice change, ear or nasal symptoms, complaints related to skin infections, scalp infections, associated systemic illness, history of contact with open case of tuberculosis, history of smoking or tobacco chewing, history of alcohol intake were all noted. General physical examination was done and vitals were recorded. Complete examination of the enlarged cervical lymph node was done, it’s location, number, size, tenderness, consistency, mobility and skin over the swelling were all examined. The areas drained by enlarged nodes were also examined thoroughly to identify the focus of infection.  Results: Out of 100 cases, 37% cases were diagnosed as Reactive lymphadenitis ,17% cases of metastatic deposits of squamous cell type in cervical lymph nodes with known primary, ( 3 cases of Carcinoma of Tongue, 5 cases of hypopharyngeal/laryngeal cancer, 2 cases of oropharyngeal cancer, 1 case of esophageal cancer) followed by 4% cases of Granulomatous 14% cases of Tubercular lymphadenitis ,13% cervical lyphadenopathy, 5% cases of Metastasis of unknown origin(neck secondaries with unknown primary),4% cases of acute suppurative lymphadenitis, 3 cases of Hodgkin’s lymphoma, 3 cases of Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and 1 case of leukemia.  Conclusion:- Cervical lymphadenopathy is a frequently encountered problem in all age groups. It requires detailed history and clinical examination to arrive at an etiological diagnosis. Most of them are associated with the infections in the draining areas of that particular group of lymph nodes .It shows features of reactive lymphadenitis and treatment by a course of antibiotics is sufficient.

Keywords : Cervical Lymphadenopathy, Tubercular Lymphadenopathy, Metastatic Deposits.


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