This study aimed at exploring the socioeconomic condition of upland rice farmers in two locations, namely Waeperang and Miskoko villages of Buru Regency, Maluku, describing their work as well as the supporting of the local culture of the community towards the sustainability of their daily life. This study employed qualitative approach using the phenomenology design which is described descriptively based on Miles &Huberman’s model. The results show that the condition of rice farmers continued to survive due to the support of their traditions which led to having lower production costs compared with other plant species. The strategy used by farmers to meet their shortage of life needs is to do other jobs around the environment such as the fishermen and as the eucalyptus oil workers. Economic morals become safeguards and balances in every agricultural activity. Generally, the cultural characteristics of these two locations are the same but different in some conditions that are on the issue of the belief that dominates the actions of each community group. The implications of the study can be a reference policy for the local and central government in increasing the production of upland rice and food security efforts to improve the livelihood of the upland rice farmers.
Keywords : Moral economy; farmers; upland rice.