Urbanization, industrialization, and phenomenal growth in population are the factors for increasing environmental pollution. Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, pollution of biosphere by toxic metals has accelerated dramatically. Bamboo is known as a highly useful plant but it also play valuable environmental role. Its complex root system is good for water filtration, removing nutrients and dangerous contaminants such as heavy metals. This study aimed at investigating the potential of Bambusa vulgaris to clean up heavy metal contaminants through phytoremediation. The plants were grown up in lysimeter pot for three months in the presence of heavy metal Cu, Zn and Fe with different concentration 100, 200, 300 ppm respectively to quantify the toxic effects of these metals on several different morphological growth and physiological parameter. The results indicated that the leachates status showed low concentration of heavy metal after being infiltrated throughout the study, furthermore morphological and physiological performance of B. vulgaris responded negatively towards higher concentration of heavy metal. These heavy metals are considered to be essential for plant growth at low concentration, but visible symptoms of phytotoxicity observed on plants growth performance, reduction in chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic efficiency which were significantly decreased after certain level of concentration and time. Thus, we can conclude that B. vulgaris is excellent to clean up heavy metal but weak to tolerate with high concentration of heavy metal contaminants.
Keywords : B. Vulgaris, Phytoremediation, Morphological, Physiological, Phytoxicity, Chlorophyll Content, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Photosynthetic Efficiency.