Physicochemical Characteristics and Bacteria Quality of Kunu (A Non-Alcoholic Beverage) Consumed in Yola, Adamawa State Capital, Nigeria

Authors : Tyokusa, A. G.; Adamu, R. I.; Hwande, N. S.

Volume/Issue : Volume 8 - 2023, Issue 7 - July

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The physicochemical properties (pH, Protein content, Carbohydrate, Total Soluble Solid and Titratable Acidity) as well as the bacteria quality of 15 different kunu samples consisting of 5 each of kunu- zaki, kunu-aya and kunu-tsamiya were determined . From the study, the pH range of kunu-zaki was 5.0 to 6.9, that of kunu-aya was 3.0 to 4.2 and kunu-tsamiya was 2.0 to 2.1 respectively.Also, Titratable Acidity of kunu-zaki ranged from 0.243 to 0.594, kunu-aya 0.035 to 0.045 and finally kunu-tsamiya 0.245 to 0.873. The bacteria load was highest for kunu-zaki with 9.6×109 while the least was from kunu-tsamiya with 1.3×109 . The bacteria isolated from the samples were E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus sp , Enterococcus sp and Pseudomonas sp. E. coli and Bacillus sp were isolated from kunu-zaki, kunu-aya and kunu-tsamiya while Enterococcus sp was isolated only from kunu-aya and kunu-tsamiya. Similarly, Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from kunu-aya and kunu-zaki respesctively while Pseudomonas sp was isolated from kunu-zaki and kunu-tsamiya.each from kunu- tsamiya and kunu-zaki respectively. The presence of potential diseases causing bacteria in all the samples is a clear indication that the hygiene practices are not usually observed during production and handling processes and thus not fit for human consumption.

Keywords : Beverages, Kunu-Zaki, Kunu-Aya, Kunu- Tsamiya and Physicochemical.


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