Prevalence of Lower Cross Syndrome in Indian Professional Jockeys


Authors : Ayusha A. Bora; Dr. Mahendra Shende; Dr. Neha Ghugare; Dr. Divya Jethwani

Volume/Issue : Volume 7 - 2022, Issue 3 - March

Google Scholar : http://bitly.ws/gu88

Scribd : https://bit.ly/3iEmwx3

DOI : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6385755

Flat- racing is a common, non- amateur, male- dominant sport of India. The jockeys have to ride multiple times during one race, making it essential for them to maintain high levels of fitness in terms of muscular strength, flexibility, endurance and stamina. Lower cross syndrome (LCS) is characterized by specific patterns of muscle weakness and tightness. The abdominal and the gluteal muscles are commonly categorized as weak, whereas, the iliopsoas and spinal extensors are commonly categorized as tight muscles in this syndrome leading to postural imbalances which lead to non- specific Low Back Pain in future. Hence, this study aims to find out the prevalence of lower cross syndrome in professional flat- race Jockeys. Methods: Endurance of abdominal (internal and external oblique muscles) and trunk extensor muscles, flexibility of bilateral iliopsoas muscles and hamstring muscles and strength of hip extensor and hip external rotator muscles was measured on 46 professional male jockeys. Results: The result suggests that the jockeys were found to have good relationship between the Left and Right lateral abdominal muscles (left: right side bridge test- McGill’s Criterion), good (Grade 4; Manual Muscle Test- Kendall scale) strength of bilateral hip extensor and hip external rotator muscles; poor endurance of Trunk extensor muscles (Biering- Sorenson test- Demoulin et. Al) and tightness of bilateral iliopsoas (Modified Thomas Test) and hamstring muscles (V sit and reach Test).Conclusion: 23.9% of jockeys had lower cross syndrome, the remaining are at high risk of developing Lower cross syndrome in future. Additionally, Trunk extensor muscle endurance was predominantly poor.

Keywords : Jockey, flat racing, equestrian sports, Lower cross syndrome, Endurance, low back pain.

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