Relationship between Chemotherapy Side Effects on Gastrointestinal System and Quality of Life of Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Patients


Authors : Triska Antony Manday; Selvi Nafianti; Yazid Dimyati; Sri Sofyani; Rita Evalina; Juliandi Harahap

Volume/Issue : Volume 7 - 2022, Issue 8 - August

Google Scholar : https://bit.ly/3IIfn9N

Scribd : https://bit.ly/3w8DR8u

DOI : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6997210

Patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) undergoes chemotherapy treatment. The side effects of chemotherapy correlated to gastrointestinal system were reported in 40% in-patients going through standard risk chemotherapy and all (100%) in-patients receiving high-risk chemotherapy. Some of the side effects of chemotherapy on the gastrointestinal system in ALL patients include decreased appetite, cachexia, fatigue, perianal dermatosis, even hemorrhoid due to constipation, as well as prolonged mucositis. These conditions physically and psychologically interfere with children activity and negatively impact the quality of life. This research studied the relationship between the side effects of chemotherapy specifically on the gastrointestinal system and the QOL of pediatric ALL patients so that appropriate follow-up procedures to improve QOL during chemotherapy can be planned. This was a cross-sectional study carried out at the Hematology-Oncology division Haji Adam Malik hospital. The research subjects were pediatric ALL patients aged between 2 and 18 years old, meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Sampling technique was consecutive sampling. The relationships between the dependent variable (QOL) and independent variables (chemotherapy protocol and duration and side effects) were assessed by Chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and Fischer’s exact tests. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the most dominant independent variable affecting the QOL of pediatric ALL patients undergoing chemotherapy. No significant relationship between chemotherapy protocol and QOL (p=0.435). No significant relationship between the duration of chemotherapy and QOL (p>0.05). There were significant relationships between chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal disorder symptoms and QOL, such as oral mucositis (p=0.001), nausea (p=0.037), vomiting (p=0.001), and diarrhea (p=0.006). From the multivariate analysis, three independent variables that could predict the QOL of pediatric ALL patients were oral mucositis (p=0.002), nausea (p=0.040), and vomiting (p=0.019). Chemotherapy procedures for ALL treatment on pediatric patients showed a poor QOL.

Keywords : chemotherapy, quality of life, gastrointestinal system, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, pediatric.

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