Review of Aetiology and Antibiotics Used in Community Acquired Pneumonia in Asia; A Preliminary Study for the Formulation of a Standard Treatment Guideline

Authors : Aashutosh Ghimire; Kajol Kiran Adhikari; Basanta Sharma Paudel ; Sangam Shah

Volume/Issue : Volume 6 - 2021, Issue 7 - July

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Pneumonia is a respiratory tract infection that makes breathing painful. It is one of the leading killers in the world, the largest victim being south asian countries. Pneumonia can be caused by a variety of pathogens and the detection of these pathogens takes a long time. The empirical therapy is given until the pathogen is detected but die to the absence of a standard guideline, the empirical therapy given in the treatment is not uniform and hence it is associated with high mortality. The purpose of the study is to review the aetiology of Pneumonia and the drugs effective in Pneumonia in Asian countries so as to facilitate the formulation of a local treatment guideline. Result: The leading pathogens in the asian countries are found to be S pneumoniae, S aureus, M pneumoniae and H influenzae. P aeriginosa and S aureus were associated with higher mortality rates. The drugs used were mostly Beta lactams, Quinolones and Macrolides, either monotherapy or a combination therapy. Many cases of Macrolide resistance were seen. Discussion and Conclusion: The use of macrolides were not associated to significant improvement in mortality rates, and since the macrolides were found to be highly resistant, they are not preferred for empirical therapy. Beta lactams particularly third generation cephalosporins are found to be highly used in the present context. Beta lactams or Quinolones monotherapy or a combination therapy can be effective for Community acquired Pneumonia.

Keywords : Community Acquired Pneumonia, CAP, Empirical Therapy, Treatment Guidelines, S Pneumoniae, S Aureus


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31 - October - 2023

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