Spatio-Climatic Influence on Malaria Vector Distribution


Authors : Tosin Samuel Afeniforo; Prof. Godson R. E. E. Ana

Volume/Issue : Volume 6 - 2021, Issue 7 - July

Google Scholar : http://bitly.ws/9nMw

Scribd : https://bit.ly/374at6t

Malaria is a major public health disease in Nigeria and the risk exists throughout all the country. However, it is a widely accepted view that climate change may affect the distribution of vector species. To better understand the epidemiology of the disease, it is important to study the climatic parameter such as temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall because these parameters influence the life cycles and development of both the malaria parasite and mosquito vector. Climate change can increase the areas at risk of malaria incidence and thereby enabling malaria transmission. The study focuses on the spatio-climatic influence on malaria vector distribution in the University of Ibadan and Awe town in Oyo state between March and May 2017. Anopheles mosquitoes were sampled using Pyrethroid spray collection and reported cases of malaria infection were obtained from the clinic. Environmental practices prevalent in the study area were also obtained through an observation checklist. The following meteorological parameters (temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall) were obtained to assess the relationship between climate and malaria incidence. The total number of mosquitoes caught in the University of Ibadan during the three months was 97 while the total number of mosquitoes caught in Awe was 43. A nonsignificant difference P (0.07) exists between the malaria vector burden in University of Ibadan and Awe while a non-significant difference P (0.131) exists between the malaria prevalence reported cases in the University of Ibadan and Awe. Environmental practices prevalent in Awe town include roadside ditches that do not drain properly, storm drains/catch basins that hold water, detention/retention ponds, low-lying areas with standing water, used tires, containers: buckets, litter, etc. pet/livestock waters that are not rinsed and mud-house. While those prevalent in the University of Ibadan include roadside ditches that do not drain properly, Storm drains/catch basins that hold water, low-lying areas with standing water, containers: buckets, litter, etc. House plants with watering saucers and grown bushes/grasses. The correlation analysis shows that a positive correlation (r = 0.995), (r = 0.980) exists between the temperature of the study areas and incidence of malaria vector in the study areas. Also, correlation analysis shows that a negative correlation (r = -0.937), (r = -0.894) exists between the relative humidity of the study areas and the incidence of malaria vector in the study. A negative correlation (r = -0.343), (r = -0.240) also exists between the rainfall of the study areas and the incidence of malaria vectors in the study areas. This study has provided essential baseline data for the climate-malaria vector incidence relationship.

Keywords : Climate Change, Malaria, Vector, Temperature, Rainfall

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