All structures, even critical infrastructure
such as bridge, highways etc., deteriorate with time.
Any structure which is serving its design life will need
regular maintenance to maintain the integrity and
complete the design life without much structural
distress. The distress in the structure maybe due to
external loading, internal changes or sudden natural
calamity. According to ASCE 2017 infrastructure
report card, nearly 10% bridges in US have some
structural deficiencies. In such cases, means of
continuous monitoring of structure to have an
assessment of changes in the function of time and to
provide an early warning of an unsafe condition in real-
time helps mitigate disasters, this process is called as
STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING (SHM).
Different structures require different types of
maintenance due to changes in material, configuration
and connection etc. This paper attempts to review the
available techniques of structural health monitoring
applicable to civil engineering along with its
applicability, merits and demerits.