Teaching Critical Thinking from Richard Paul's Perspective

Authors : Adissone Macatange Hospital; Mariano Araújo; Godfrey Buleque

Volume/Issue : Volume 8 - 2023, Issue 7 - July

Google Scholar : https://bit.ly/3TmGbDi

Scribd : https://tinyurl.com/5n6f2zeh

DOI : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.8216615

A society like ours is always exposed to complex processes of change, where production and work modes are continually involved, where the professional profile and human behavior change, it poses the school always articulated and broad challenges and demands answers more qualified. Therefore, a school understood as a cultural system and the reproduction of pre-established social functions is anachronistic. It becomes imperative to assert itself as a new school understood as an integrated training system that accompanies and favours choices more suitable to a complex and dynamic world, in which we live, which is capable of making its students know how to orient themselves in reality, round them, so that they know how to play a leading role and so that they do not risk being on the margins of social and democratic exclusion and of productive processes. A school that knows how to provide students with a grammar of reality operating an intervention of mediation, facilitation and cultural guide. In order to achieve our objectives, to achieve the objectives proposed in this work, the argumentative method was used (Toulmin 2001; Kuhn 2001). We used, first of all, the descriptive method; in the second moment, the analytical method; and in the third instance, the theoretical reflexive method. But we also use sources from different authors who face this theme, following the evaluative and propositional method. The work can be developed through an articulation in three parts: firstly, we will examine the different educational definitions and orientations in “educating to think critically”. The primary objective for us is to clarify and focus the issue of critical thinking in the mind of a learner and a person endowed with this ability. Then we will highlight the importance and necessity of this skill for “students of today” and for generations to come. In the second moment, we present Richard Paul's definition of critical thinking. And, also, we present the elements of which they are constituted, their characteristics and their relevance to our life. The conclusions demonstrated that to teach critically in the 21st century, the didactic process needs to be remodelled. Paul proposes a reordering of traditional lessons based on thirty-five cognitive strategies. The reorganisation includes affective strategies and cognitive strategies: macro-skills and micro-skills that can be applied to any school subject and to all levels of education and training.


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