A society like ours is always exposed to
complex processes of change, where production and
work modes are continually involved, where the
professional profile and human behavior change, it poses
the school always articulated and broad challenges and
demands answers more qualified. Therefore, a school
understood as a cultural system and the reproduction of
pre-established social functions is anachronistic.
It becomes imperative to assert itself as a new
school understood as an integrated training system that
accompanies and favours choices more suitable to a
complex and dynamic world, in which we live, which is
capable of making its students know how to orient
themselves in reality, round them, so that they know how
to play a leading role and so that they do not risk being
on the margins of social and democratic exclusion and of
productive processes. A school that knows how to
provide students with a grammar of reality operating an
intervention of mediation, facilitation and cultural guide.
In order to achieve our objectives, to achieve the
objectives proposed in this work, the argumentative
method was used (Toulmin 2001; Kuhn 2001). We used,
first of all, the descriptive method; in the second
moment, the analytical method; and in the third
instance, the theoretical reflexive method. But we also
use sources from different authors who face this theme,
following the evaluative and propositional method.
The work can be developed through an articulation
in three parts: firstly, we will examine the different
educational definitions and orientations in “educating to
The primary objective for us is to clarify and focus
the issue of critical thinking in the mind of a learner and
a person endowed with this ability. Then we will
highlight the importance and necessity of this skill for
“students of today” and for generations to come.
In the second moment, we present Richard Paul's
definition of critical thinking. And, also, we present the
elements of which they are constituted, their
characteristics and their relevance to our life. The
conclusions demonstrated that to teach critically in the
21st century, the didactic process needs to be remodelled.
Paul proposes a reordering of traditional lessons based
on thirty-five cognitive strategies. The reorganisation
includes affective strategies and cognitive strategies:
macro-skills and micro-skills that can be applied to any
school subject and to all levels of education and training.