The Concentration, Spatial Distribution and the Potential Threats of High Cadmium Contamination Levels in Soils in the Niger Delta


Authors : Ifeyinwa L Nwankwo; Tamunoene K S Abam

Volume/Issue : Volume 8 - 2023, Issue 3 - March

Google Scholar : https://bit.ly/3TmGbDi

Scribd : https://bit.ly/40XxLEv

DOI : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7889126

Abstract : The concentration level and distribution of Cadmium (Cd) were determined from hydrocarbon remediated soil and sediment samples in some parts of the Niger Delta. The results from the descriptive analysis, geo-accummulation index (Igeo) and comparison with guideline values were interpretated as having high potential threat to the environment and human health; the concentration level of Cadmium in the remediated soil and remained higher than the target value of 0.8mg/kg given by the Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) in the Environmental Guidelines and Standards for Petroleum Industry in Nigeria (EGASPIN) and the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline of 0.003mg/kg. the mean Cadmium concentration values were as high as 50.5mg/kg and 7.29mg/kg in soil and sediment, respectively. Of the topsoil evaluated, 25% of the sample data have most of its Cd concentration values about 2 to 13 times greater than the 0.8mg/kg target value and more than 100% greater than WHO guideline value of 0.003mg/kg. Comparable high concentration values were observed in the median and upper quartile having 50% and 75% of the data, respectively. The acidity of most of the remediated sites evaluated showed low pH values (<5.6) below Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nation’s guideline for pH in soil which is known to encourage Cd accumulation and availability in soil and sediment. The study showed the widespread distribution of anomalous concentration levels of Cadmium in soil and sediment studied which deviates from the average geogenic concentration level of Cadmium in the environment. The result of this work serves as an important call for environmental and public health attention which should include comprehensive hazard assessment due to the observed high cadmium concentration levels and widespread distribution in the area under investigation which were already certified as remediated. And recommend further studies on modelling the transport, retention and accumulation of Cd in the soil, sediment and water in the Niger Delta.

Keywords : Contamination, Soil, Cadmium, Spatial distribution, Concentration.

The concentration level and distribution of Cadmium (Cd) were determined from hydrocarbon remediated soil and sediment samples in some parts of the Niger Delta. The results from the descriptive analysis, geo-accummulation index (Igeo) and comparison with guideline values were interpretated as having high potential threat to the environment and human health; the concentration level of Cadmium in the remediated soil and remained higher than the target value of 0.8mg/kg given by the Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) in the Environmental Guidelines and Standards for Petroleum Industry in Nigeria (EGASPIN) and the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline of 0.003mg/kg. the mean Cadmium concentration values were as high as 50.5mg/kg and 7.29mg/kg in soil and sediment, respectively. Of the topsoil evaluated, 25% of the sample data have most of its Cd concentration values about 2 to 13 times greater than the 0.8mg/kg target value and more than 100% greater than WHO guideline value of 0.003mg/kg. Comparable high concentration values were observed in the median and upper quartile having 50% and 75% of the data, respectively. The acidity of most of the remediated sites evaluated showed low pH values (<5.6) below Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nation’s guideline for pH in soil which is known to encourage Cd accumulation and availability in soil and sediment. The study showed the widespread distribution of anomalous concentration levels of Cadmium in soil and sediment studied which deviates from the average geogenic concentration level of Cadmium in the environment. The result of this work serves as an important call for environmental and public health attention which should include comprehensive hazard assessment due to the observed high cadmium concentration levels and widespread distribution in the area under investigation which were already certified as remediated. And recommend further studies on modelling the transport, retention and accumulation of Cd in the soil, sediment and water in the Niger Delta.

Keywords : Contamination, Soil, Cadmium, Spatial distribution, Concentration.

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