The Place of the Department of Pathological Anatomy of the CHU Ibn Rochd Casablanca in the Diagnosis and Classification of Bronchopulmonary Cancer

Authors : Mohamed Belcaid; Nabil Gaougaou; Oussama Aazzane; Abderahman Mellouki; Fatima Zahra Bakhtaoui; Saida Stitou; Mehdi Karkouri

Volume/Issue : Volume 8 - 2023, Issue 10 - October

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Introduction: Bronchopulmonary cancers (CBP) represent the leading cause of death in men worldwide. In this study, we present the epidemiological, histopathological, and immunohistochemical characteristics of CBP diagnosed in Moroccan lung cancer patients.Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study during the year 2018. We used a data sheet for collecting clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical data of CBP patients. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed to determine frequencies and percentages. Bivariate analysis was used to examine the association between the dependent variable (histological type) and independent variables (age and gender).Results: In 2018, we analyzed the anatomopathological reports of 246 CBP patients, with an average age of 61.3 years and a gender ratio of 2.72. Adenocarcinomas (ADC) were the most common, accounting for 54.5% of cases. The TNM classification of operated cases showed that tumor sizes T2, T3, and T4 represented 20%, 57%, and 23%, with N0 at 40%, N1 at 33%, and N2 at 27%. Secondary tumors accounted for 10% of cases, with 46% originating from the breast. Immunohistochemically, TTF-1 expression was found in 89% of ADC cases, anti- p63 antibody expression was positive in 100% of squamous cell carcinoma cases. For neuroendocrine carcinoma cases, synaptophysin expression and chromogranin A had positivity rates of 100% and 60%, respectively. Bivariate analysis did not show any significant association between histological types and age or gender.Conclusion: We concluded that this series allows for the analysis of the profile of CBP cases diagnosed in a major lung cancer treatment center in Morocco. The predominance of adenocarcinoma tumors in the profile should caution against hasty conclusions, with the systematic testing of TTF-1 and anatomoclinical correlation before determining the primary tumor. Diagnosis remains delayed in our context due to the advanced stages that continue to prevail.

Keywords : Bronchopulmonary Cancer, Epidemiology, Histopathology, Immunohistochemistry.


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